Social activist, political journalist, economist and philosopher, despite his noble background a representative of the mid-nineteenth-century radical democracy.
Publicist, composer, music critic, and politician born into a family with rich intellectual and literary traditions.
Conservative publicist, literary critic, politician, and art historian.
Political journalist, engineer, political writer, Catholic historiographer.
Historian and mediaevalist, sociologist, historiosopher, essayist, and politician.
Philosopher, politician, writer, priest; one of the most eminent personages of the Enlightenment period in Poland.
Political thinker and leading representative of the reform camp in Poland in the 18th century; educationist and Piarist.
Historical researcher and social philosopher.
Historian, and political activist connected with the National Democracy.
Political activist, and representative of Christian Democracy.
Activist of the National Democracy, and political publicist.
Social activist, publicist, editor, priest, and supporter of the supremacy of papal secular power.
Conservative publicist, politician from Galicia, and theatre critic and director.
Literary scholar, expert on English history and culture, and translator of, among others, William Shakespeare.
Poet, playwright, and novelist; count and Conservative thinker.
Political publicist, an important figure for the Conservative-Liberal opposition circles in Polish People’s Republic.
Political publicist associated with the radical wing of the reformist camp from the period of the decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lawyer and economist representing the Conservative-Liberal current in the Polish thought.
Historian, explorer of 19th-century Russian history, politician, and publicist.
Lawyer, professor of administrative law, administrative sciences, and statistics at the Jagiellonian University, he was born in Radziechów, in Galicia.
A member of the Polish military, Major General of the Polish Army, author of military studies.