He was born on 12 December 1886 in Warsaw and died on 24 July 1976 in Penley (United Kingdom). In his youth, he got involved with the socialist movement and became a member of the Polish Socialist Party. He received a doctor’s degree in law from the University of Zurich. During World War I, he served in the Polish Legions and in the Austrian army. He was deputy to the Sejm (lower chamber of the Polish Parliament) in its first and second terms. In 1930, as an active member of the opposition against the Józef Piłsudski camp, which had ruled since the May coup of 1926, he was imprisoned in the Brest Fortress; in 1932, he was sentenced to three years in prison during a political trial in Brest. From 1933 to 1935, he was abroad. After returning to Poland, he served several months of the Brest sentence. After the German invasion in 1939, he left Poland. From 1941 to 1947, he was a member of the Foreign Committee of the Polish Socialist Party. From 1942, he was a member of the National Council. From 1944 to 1949, he was the minister of information and documentation in the governments in exile headed by Prime Ministers Tomasz Arciszewski and Tadeusz Komorowski. From 1947, he was the head of the Union of Polish Socialists in Exile. He wrote articles, especially on international topics, for the Wiadomości [“News”] weekly, which was published in London. He co-founded the Polish Scientific Society in Exile. He published, among others, Czas przeszły dokonany [“Past Perfect”] (1966) and Puszka Pandory [“Pandora’s Box”] (1969).
This website is a part of the project entitled ‘Polish Political Thought and Independence: A Program for the Promotion of Polish Intellectual Heritage Abroad’, generously funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland as A part of ‘Public Diplomacy 2017’ programme, component ‘Collaboration in the field of Public Diplomacy 2017’.